> @ sjbjbqq %$hlrrrrrrr8B,vxxxxxx,- M]rrrrrvrrrrvbvrrvvvvvT.A. Ryckman
University of California, Berkeley
Oxford Symmetry Workshop
12-14 January 2001
Weyls Debt to Husserl:
The Transcendental Phenomenological Roots
of the Gauge Principle
Gauge invariance is a classic case of a good idea which was discovered before its time.
K. Moriyasu, An Elementary Primer for Gauge Theory (1984)
The name gauge comes from the ordinary English word meaning measure. The history of the use of this name for a class of field theories is very roundabout, and has little to do with their physical significance as we now understand it.
S. Weinberg, The Forces of Nature, Am. Scientist, 65 (1977)
As far as I see, all a priori statements in physics have their origin in symmetry.
H. Weyl, Symmetry (1952).
Overview. The gauge principle (the principle of local symmetries) -- a demand that field laws be invariant under local symmetry transformations -- was first formulated in 1918 by H. Weyl in the course of an epistemological reconstruction of Einsteins General Relativity in accord with central precepts of Husserlian transcendental phenomenology. The result, Weyls unified theory of gravitation and electromagnetism, is based on a geometry satisfying the epistemological principle of relativity of magnitude, a broadening of relativity theory. However, as Einstein and Pauli immediately objected, Weyls theory is in ostensibly flagrant contradiction with observation. This did not deter Weyl, who claimed, essentially, that the symmetry is hidden. Weyl only surrenders his theory in 1928 with the discovery of an absolute length in the Dirac theory of the electron (its Compton wave length). In 1929, Weyl himself reinterprets his gauge idea in the contemporary sense, as pertaining not to spacetime symmetries but to an internal symmetry (e.g., of the complex phase of the wave function of an electron). Weyls idea lay dormant until Yang and Mills (and Shaw) in 1954-55, who revived it in a more general (non-abelian) form in the context of nuclear physics. The rest of the story belongs to the recent history of physics (1973 ( gauge field theories unifying three fundamental interactions). Yet recalling the phenomenological roots of the gauge principle reveals more clearly the constitutive/regulative force of the idea of symmetry in physical theorizing. Or: Seek and ye just might find.
Outline
I. Modern Gauge Invariance: The Basic Idea.
II. Axes of Comparison: Husserl-Weyl.
III. Husserl-Weyl Correspondence.
IV. Weyls Conception of a World Geometry.
V. Pure Infinitesimal Geometry.
VI. The Gauge Idea: A Sedimented History.
VII. The Usual View of the Origins of Gauge Invariance.
VIII. Conclusion.
I. Modern Gauge Invariance: The Basic Idea
Gauge theories: a collective name for a large variety of theories of fundamental (elementary particle) interactions having a common feature: Invariance of their physical predictions under a group of transformations (gauge transformations) of the basic variables of the field theory.
1. Example: Classical electromagnetism The archtype of a gauge theory (S. Weinberg)
(Spacetime formulation) Taking the electromagnetic four-vector potential A( (( = spacetime indices 1-4 ) as field variable, then the physical predictions of the Maxwell theory are invariant under the gauge transformation of the four potential, involving the addition of a gradient of a scalar function
(*) A( ( A(( = A( + (( ((x) [(( = ( ((x)/(x]
Note that the transformation introduces an arbitrary (suitably differentiable) scalar function ((x) (of spacetime x = x1, x2, x3, x4).
Introduction of an arbitrary function depending on position is characteristic of gauge transformations and the reason why the gauge principle is sometimes called the Principle of Local Symmetries.
Not only the Maxwell equations but also the electromagnetic field tensor
F(( = ( A( /( x( ( A( / ( x(
is invariant under substitutions of this kind. In other words: the (physically measurable) field strengths are given by field tensor F(( and not by the (absolute) values of the vector potential A(.
I. Modern Gauge Invariance: The Basic Idea
2. Illustration of implementation of Principle of Local Symmetries:
To gauge a field Lagrangian by requiring its invariance (and so the field laws derivable from it) when an internal parameter is made to vary as a function of spacetime position.
Example: Quantum Electrodynamics
Begin with a free electron field ((x), which is determined up to a phase factor (; i.e., its Lagrangian is invariant under the global phase transformation
((x) ( (((x) = e i( (
Now demand that the phase parameter ( vary as a function of position x
(**) ((x) ( (((x) = e i( (x) (.
This generates a coupling term (containing A( (x)) which is added to the Lagrangian. The resulting Lagrangian is invariant under the joint local transformation of ( (x), as in (**), and of A( (x) as
A( (x) ( A(( (x) = A( (x) " ( (x)/e
where the partial derivative term compensates of the position-dependent variation of the phase factor. Hence by imposing the requirement of local symmetry, the free electron field is coupled to the electromagnetic field:
Local symmetries dictate the form of the interaction. (C.N. Yang)
II. Axes of Comparison: Husserl Weyl
A) Transcendental subjectivity
Husserl:
My transcendental method is transcendental-phenomenological.It is the ultimate fulfillment of old intentions, especially those of English empiricist philosophy, to investigate the ultimate sense of the validity of knowledge through a return to the transcendental-phenomenological originsthe origins of objectivity in transcendental subjectivity, the origin of the relative being of objects in the absolute being of consciousness. Lecture, 1908.
Transcendence is an immanent constitutive mode of being within
the ego itself. Every thinkable meaning, every thinkable being regardless of whether it is immanent or transcendent falls within the realm of transcendental subjectivity. Transcendental subjectivity is the universe of possible meanings; anything external to it is meaningless. Die PariserVortrge (1929), 32-33.
Only blindness to the transcendental, as it can be experienced and is knowable only through phenomenological reduction, made the revival of physicalism in our time possible. Krisis d. eur. Wissenschaften, 1936, 265.
Weyl:
The actual world, each of its pieces and all determinations in them, are, and can only be, given as intentional objects of conscious acts. Absolutely given are conscious experiences that I have just as I have them. ...The immanent is absolute, that is, it is exactly what it is as I have it and I can eventually bring this, its essence (Wesen)to givenness before me in acts of reflection. What is given to consciousness (das Bewutsseins-Gegebene) is the point of departure at which we must place ourselves in order to grasp the meaning and justification of the posit of actuality (Wirklichkeitssetzing) in an absolute way. RZM 1-5, 3-4.
Actuality [Wirklichkeit] is not a being-in-itself [Sein an sich] but rather is constituted for a consciousness. Geometrie und Physik, 1931, 49.
II. Axes of Comparison: Husserl-Weyl
B) Eidos and Eidetic Analysis (Wesensanalyse)
Husserl:
The eidos, the pure essence (reine Wesen), can be exemplified for intuition in experiential data of perception, memory and so forth but equally well from intuitions which are non-empirical, which do not seize upon factual existence but which are instead merely imaginative. Ideen I, 1913, 4.
Everything belonging to the pure eidos must also belong to every corresponding factual occurrence. Ideen I, 1913, 6.
In precisely the same way as pure geometry desists from binding itself to the shapes observed in actual experience and rather pursues possible shapes and transformations of shape in free, constructive, geometrical fantasy, determining the eidetic laws (Wesensgesetze) of those shapes: precisely in this way pure phenomenology wished to explore the realm of pure consciousness and its phenomena, in accordance not with factual existence but with pure possibilities and forms. The scientific cognition of empirical actuality can be exact, partaking of genuine rationality, only insofar as it refers this actuality to its eidetic possibilities. Lecture, 1917.
Weyl:
It is the task of the mathematician to grasp concepts in the full generality that corresponds to their essence (Wesen). Letter to F. Klein, 20 September 1918.
It is not the business of the mathematician to pass judgment on actuality but rather to think through to the end (zu Ende zu denken) the problems originating there, bringing to them the ready tools. And only thus, that one thinks a theory through to the end with all earnestness and consistency, does it grow out of itself and beyond itself. The truth is something living. Mathematische Analyse des Raumproblems, 1924, 45.
(My) investigations concerning space appear to me to be a good example of the essential analysis (Wesensanalyse) striven for by phenomenological philosophy (Husserl). Raum-Zeit-Materie 4, 133.
II. Axes of Comparison: Husserl Weyl
C) Formal Ontology (Mathesis Universalis)/ World Geometry
Husserl:
The highest task of pure logic is to be a theory of possible forms of theory or the pure theory of manifolds. Logische Untersuchugen (1900)
Definite manifold:a finite number of concepts and propositions
completely and unambiguously determines the totality of all possible formations of the region with pure analytical necessity. Ideen I, 1913, 72.
In itself the science of pure possibilities precedes the science
of actualities and first makes the latter possible as a science.
Cartesianische Meditationen, 1929, 106.
Weyl:
In (my) theory, all physical magnitudes have a world geometric meaning. Gravitation und Elektrizitt (1918), 467.
According to (my) theory, everything actual (Wirkliche) that is present in the world is a manifestation of the world metric: physical concepts are not other than geometrical ones. The sole distinction subsisting between geometry and physics is that geometry probes what lies in the essence (Wesen) of metrical concepts, but physics ascertains the law through which the actual world (wirkliche Welt) is distinguished among all the four-dimensional metrical spaces according to the geometry. Reine Infinitesimalgeometrie (1918), 385.
That for the purpose of its theoretical description we must set the actual world [wirkliche Welt] upon the background of possibilities (of the spacetime continuum with its field structure) signifies, when all is said and done, the occurrence of geometry in physics. Was ist Materie? (1924), 81.
III. Husserl- Weyl Correspondence
Husserl to Weyl (10 April 1918) on receipt of Weyls gift of a copy of
Das Kontinuum:
Finally a mathematician shows appreciation for the necessity of phenomenological modes of treatment in all questions of clarification of fundamental concepts, and hence returns to the original soil (Urboden) of logical-mathematical intuition, on which alone a really authoritative foundation of mathematics and an insight into the sense of mathematical achievement is possible.
I see, in all you have written, what I have sought in a similar inclination, a greater, wider perspective: of a philosophically based mathesis universalis and this again linked to a new formal metaphysics (of the a priori and general doctrine of individuation) on which I have worked for years and continue to do so.
Husserl to Weyl (5 June 1920) on receipt of Weyls gift of a copy of RZM 3 (1919):
For a whole free afternoon I remained seated over and reading your work, which flowed with increasing delight. How near this work is to my ideal of a physics permeated by a philosophical spirit. What joy it is that our time has brought about such a universal knowledge of the mathematical form of the world, guided by the highest ideas, and that I may yet experience it! How much your own most characteristically deep cognitions concerning the Riemannian space form, concerning the distinction of 4 dimensionality, etc. has impressed me. Without reading the mathematical parts, still I have, as Exmathematicus, presumed understanding of the sense of such deductions and, from the side of my studies, I am above all moved here by the transcendental significance, which points to similar, correlative, problems and thus anticipates such theories as yours.
III. Husserl- Weyl Correspondence
Weyl to Husserl (26 March 1921) on receipt of Husserls gift of 1921 reprint of 2nd (1913) edition of Logische Untersuchungen:
Despite all the faults you attribute to the Logical Investigations from your present standpoint, I find the conclusive results of this work, that has rendered such an enormous service to the spirit of pure objectivity [reiner Sachlichkeit] in epistemology the decisive insights on evidence and truth, the recognition that intuition [Anschauung] extends far beyond sensuous intuition established with great clarity and conciseness.
Recently, I have occupied myself with grasping the essence of space [das Wesen des Raumes] upon the ultimate grounds susceptible to mathematical analysis. The problem accordingly concerns a similar group theoretical investigation, as carried out by Helmholtz in his time
. However, today the situation is altered through the theory of relativity, which also enables a notable deepening of the foundations [Erteiferlegung der Fundamente].
IV. Weyls Conception of a World Geometry
Weyls Husserlian conception of the relation of geometry (as formal ontology, or mathesis universalis) to physics
A World Geometry definitely demarcates the space of possible worlds; it is a theory of theories, a framework within which all actual being can be located. Physics distinguishes one of these possibilities as the actual world.
How is such a geometry to be found? Through the method of transcendental phenomenology phenomenological reduction, eidetic analysis coupled with mathematical construction.
The goal of eidetic analysis is insight (Wesenserchauung, Wesenseinsicht) into the essence of general concepts (meanings): it is to bring into genuine comprehension (originr Erfassung) not individual particularities but essence of the broadest generality. (Husserl)
The significance pure in pure phenomenology: all questions of actual existence are suspended.
Phenomenology is pure in precisely the same sense of purity as mathematical analysis and geometry. It investigates the ideal a priori laws under which the pure possibilities of consciousness stand, and rules out all questions concerning actual existence. (Husserl)
Weyls Pure Infinitesimal Geometry is pure in just this sense and is accordingly proposed as a World Geometry: a formal ontology, or theory of theories for classical field physics. But as a result, the field laws must not only be generally covariant but also gauge invariant.
Why? Because
a truly local geometry (Nahegeometrie) should know
only a principle of length transference from one point to
another infinitely close by. Gravitation und Elektrizitt, (1918).
IV. Why must World Geometry be a truly local geometry?
The Usual View
Weyl saw the essence of general relativity in the determination of the displacement of the fiduciae of physics from one point to another along a curve, by the integration of an infinitesimal displacement.
E. Lubkin, (1963) Geometrical Definition of Gauge Invariance, Annals of Physics, 23, 233.
is not wrong but incomplete.
Weyl identifies, and concurs with, the Leibniz Riemann - Lie tradition of seeking to understand the world from its behavior in the infinitely small.
But the priviledged status of the infinitesimal is for epistemological and in particular, phenomenological, not metaphysical, reasons:
Only the spatio-temporally coinciding and the immediate spatial-temporal neighborhood have a directly clear meaning exhibited in intuition. Geometrie und Physik(1931), 49.
The infinitesimal is the homogeneous purview immediately given in intuition to pure consciousness.
The immediate life of intuition and thus the intuitive continua of space and time (forms of intuition) alone survives the phenomenological reduction. This is the evidential basis on which all mathematical continua are constituted in step-wise fashion: continuous connection (topology), affinely connected manifold, metrical manifold, and finally, field physics.
For the construction of metrical structure: we begin with a centered linear vector space about the locus of the cognizing ego at which only a relative comparison of lengths can be immediately made. This obviously allows local scale to be arbitrarily chosen.
The epistemological principle of relativity of magnitude has the degree of persuasiveness as Einsteins principle of relativity of motion.
V. Pure Infinitesimal Geometry 1918
A truly local geometry (Nahegeometrie) should know only a principle of length transference from one point to another infinitely close by.
Gravitation und Elektrizitt (1918).
In addition to the metric tensor g(( , the metric is supplemented with a (pseudo-) vector d( (= (( dx( ) that determines how the length L
[ = V 2 = g(( V( V(] of a vector changes in infinitesimal parallel transport.
( V( = ( ( ((( V( dx( so, ( L = ( L (( dx(
(
Weyls affine connection congruent length displacement
(length changes in proportion 1 + d( H" 1)
g(( is determined up to a position-dependent conformal factor ( (= e 2 ((x)),
and when
g(( is replaced by ( g(( (w/o coordinate change )
d( is replaced by d( d log (.
Thus the (purely geometric) gauge transformations
(1) when g(( ( g((( = e 2 ((x) g(( , then (( ( ((( = (( " log (("x(.
Re-calibration of gauge ( active dilation ), L ( L( = e 2((x) L, and parallel transport via the affine connection are interchangeable operations, so
( (L( ) = e2 ((x) ( (L) = ( ( L (( dx(
For the transition to physics, a formal identification is made:
(( ( A( : = (U, ( A) and so, "((( ( "((( ( F(( : = (E, B).
In addition to the requirement of general covariance, physical laws are required to be invariant under local gauge transformations (1).
V. Pure Infinitesimal Geometry as Purely Ideal
Weyl to Einstein 19 May 1918:
As a mathematician, I absolutely must admit to this much: My geometry is the true, local geometry (Nahegeometrie); the fact that Riemann just arrived at the special case Fik = 0 has no substantive reasons but merely historical ones (development out of the theory of surfaces). If in the end you are right about the actual world (wirkliche Welt), then I would regret having to accuse the dear Lord of a mathematical inconsistency.
Weyl, Eine Neue Erweiterung der Relativittstheorie (1919, GA II, 67):
According to the pure local geometry (der reinen Nahegeometrie), length displacement should not be integrable if an electromagnetic field is present. Doesnt that stand in striking contradiction to the behaviour of rigid bodies and clocks? But the functioning of these measuring instruments is a physical process whose course is determined through the laws of nature and has, as such, nothing to do with the ideal process [ideellen Proze] of congruent displacement of world lengths [Weltstrecken] which serves for our mathematical construction of world geometry.
VI. The Gauge Idea: A Sedimented History
The perceived continuity between Weyls theory (1918-1923) and later gauge theories rests on mere formal analogy:
Invariance of field laws under gauge transformation containing an arbitrary function of spacetime:
A( ( A(( = A( ( (( ( (x).
and on Weyls unfortunate retention of the term gauge in 1929.
This similarity masks a fundamental mathematical cum philosophical difference.
Modern geometric (fibre bundle) treatment of gauge essentially depends upon a mathematical generalisation that emerged (Cartan,1922-23) only after Weyls 1918 theory: the notion of a Klein space (later, fibre) (P associated with each point P of M, generalizing the notion of an affine vector compass (tangent space) at every point P of an affinely connected manifold.
This generalisation undercuts Weyls conception of a world geometry since the associated Klein space is not a pure product of the manifold M.
As a result, the Cartan schema is unsuitable as a world geometry for physics: (Riemanns geometrische Ideen, 1925, 40)
The space ((P) is not a pure product of the manifold M
(as is the tangent space); it requires grounds of determination
lying still outside M. As long as that is the case, the Cartan
schema is quite out of the question as a theory of a single
manifold and accordingly as a world-geometric foundation
for physics.(added emphasis)
Events no longer locally characterized uniquely within the manifold M, but only in the local product space (P ( U( (U( a coordinate patch for P).
VI. Significance for Weyls conception of a World Geometry
1. Obviously, the world geometry of M (i.e., spacetime alone) is rendered an insufficient formal ontology (mathesis universalis) for physics.
2. But a deeper transcendental constitutive reason underlies the mere formal insufficiency of world geometry. Recall the fundamental locality constraint of phenomenological Evidenz in constituting objects of physics:
Only the spatio-temporally coinciding and the immediate
spatial-temporal neighborhood have a directly clear meaning
exhibited in intuition. Geometrie und Physik (1931), 49.
Now the new conception of an event, however local, cannot be grounded entirely on such evident meanings. As its aspect of quality lies above the continuum of spatio-temporal coincidences, the event itself cannot be constituted from pure consciousness whose form requires the insoluble unity of intuition and sensation:
The penetration of the Here-Now (Hier-jetzt) and the Thus (So)
is the general form of consciousness; something is only in the
insoluble unity of intuition and sensation, in which continuous
extension and continuous quality overlap. Phenomenologically
one cannot get beyond this. Philosophie der Math. u. Naturwi. (1926), 93.
In the new conception, the aspects of extension and quality (required for individuation of events) are no longer an insoluble unity but a mere ordered pairpresenting an insurmountable barrier to transcendental phenomenological constitution of the world of theoretical physics:
It is rooted in the double nature of the real that we can only design
a theoretical image (Bild) of the existing (des Seienden)upon the
background of the possible. Thus the four-dimensional continuum
of space and time is, above all else, the field of a priori subsisting
possibilities of coincidences. Philosophie der Math. u. Naturwi. (1926), 94.
3. In turn, this implies the impossibility of Weyls original program for the geometrisation of physics:
4. Finally, in the new conception a connection, given a section, lifts a curve in M into a curve in the total space D (of all the associated spaces (P), and is thus independent of the metric. Whereas for Weyl, the fundamental fact of infinitesimal geometry, is that the metric univocally determines the affine connection.
This is a basic postulate for Weyls distinction between the nature and the orientation of the metric, in his proof of the infinitesimal pythagorean nature of the metric, i.e., the a priori essence (Wesen) of space.
In 1918 there is:
No gauge argument (going from global to local symmetry), where local symmetries dictate interaction (Yang).
I.e., requirement of invariance of a field Lagrangian in passing from global to local symmetry transformations where internal parameters [phase angle, isospin orientation, etc.] become functions of space-time, varying from point to point.
No gauge field of dynamical variables introduced as compensation for local internal gauge freedom.
VII. The Usual View of Origins of Gauge Invariance
Where did Weyl get such an idea?
Classical electromagnetism: the archetype of a gauge theory? (Weinberg)
Discovery that magnetic field is not the gradient of scalar field
but the curl of a vector field and so invariant under substitutions
A( ( A( = A( + (( ( (x). [ORaifeartaigh]
Citing this appearance of the gradient of an arbitrary function as characteristic of gauge transformations is anachronistic.
Conformal invariance (under 15 parameter conformal group) of Maxwell theory? [Cunningham (1910), Bateman (1910)]
Cited, after Klein (1918), only in 4th ed. of RZM (1921)
General coordinate (diffeomorphic) invariance of GR ( gauge structure of gravity?
Another anachronism. Explicit recognition of gauge structure of GR (general covariance as a local symmetry principle) additionally presupposes:
concept of moving frame (Cartan, 1923) or tetrad (vierbein) (1928-29)
first explicit treatment of gravitational field as a gauge field (Kibble, 1961)
recognition of significance of fibre bundles with connections to describe gauge configurations (Lubkin, 1963; Trautman, 1967)
fibre bundle formalism of gauge fields (ca.1974).
VIII. Conclusions.
1. The crucial question: Why was Weyl convinced in 1918 of the existence of these local symmetries despite their apparent flagrant conflict with observational fact?
2. The answer: What was (for Weyl) a world geometry and why it must be purely infinitesimal.
3. The modern conception of gauge invariance has been quite divorced from this provenance, being based on a mere formal analogy (gauge transformation) and the unfortunate retention of a term.
4. Also, as the fibre bundle formalism makes clear, local product spaces violate the raison dtre of world geometry: to be the conceptual basis (as a definite manifold - Husserl) for all possibleconceivablefield structures.
5. Uncovering this context of origin tells something about premature discovery in science, about philosophical inspirations for scientific creativity, about the fertility of formal analogy, and about how the mind spreads itself on the world.
6. (A sizeable bone-in-the-throat for realism!)
PAGE 19
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